Cassia Valentini-Botinhao, Markus Toman, Michael Pucher, Dietmar Schabus, and Junichi Yamagishi. Intelligibility of time-compressed synthetic speech: Compression method and speaking style. Speech Communication, October 2015. [ bib | DOI ]

We present a series of intelligibility experiments performed on natural and synthetic speech time-compressed at a range of rates and analyze the effect of speech corpus and compression method on the intelligibility scores of sighted and blind individuals. Particularly we are interested in comparing linear and non-linear compression methods applied to normal and fast speech of different speakers. We recorded English and German language voice talents reading prompts at a normal and a fast rate. To create synthetic voices we trained a statistical parametric speech synthesis system based on the normal and the fast data of each speaker. We compared three compression methods: scaling the variance of the state duration model, interpolating the duration models of the fast and the normal voices, and applying a linear compression method to the generated speech waveform. Word recognition results for the English voices show that generating speech at a normal speaking rate and then applying linear compression resulted in the most intelligible speech at all tested rates. A similar result was found when evaluating the intelligibility of the natural speech corpus. For the German voices, interpolation was found to be better at moderate speaking rates but the linear method was again more successful at very high rates, particularly when applied to the fast data. Phonemic level annotation of the normal and fast databases showed that the German speaker was able to reproduce speech at a fast rate with fewer deletion and substitution errors compared to the English speaker, supporting the intelligibility benefits observed when compressing his fast speech. This shows that the use of fast speech data to create faster synthetic voices does not necessarily lead to more intelligible voices as results are highly dependent on how successful the speaker was at speaking fast while maintaining intelligibility. Linear compression applied to normal rate speech can more reliably provide higher intelligibility, particularly at ultra fast rates.

P. Swietojanski, P. Bell, and S. Renals. Structured output layer with auxiliary targets for context-dependent acoustic modelling. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | DOI | .pdf ]

In previous work we have introduced a multi-task training technique for neural network acoustic modelling, in which context-dependent and context-independent targets are jointly learned. In this paper, we extend the approach by structuring the out-put layer such that the context-dependent outputs are dependent on the context-independent outputs, thus using the context-independent predictions at run-time. We have also investigated the applicability of this idea to unsupervised speaker adaptation as an approach to overcome the data sparsity issues that comes to the fore when estimating systems with a large number of context-dependent states, when data is limited. We have experimented with various amounts of training material (from 10 to 300 hours) and find the proposed techniques are particularly well suited to data-constrained conditions allowing to better utilise large context-dependent state-clustered trees. Experimental results are reported for large vocabulary speech recognition using the Switchboard and TED corpora.

C. Valentini-Botinhao, Z. Wu, and S. King. Towards minimum perceptual error training for DNN-based speech synthesis. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

We propose to use a perceptually-oriented domain to improve the quality of text-to-speech generated by deep neural networks (DNNs). We train a DNN that predicts the parameters required for speech reconstruction but whose cost function is calculated in another domain. In this paper, to represent this perceptual domain we extract an approximated version of the Spectro-Temporal Excitation Pattern that was originally proposed as part of a model of hearing speech in noise. We train DNNs that predict band aperiodicity, fundamental frequency and Mel cepstral coefficients and compare generated speech when the spectral cost function is defined in the Mel cepstral, warped log spectrum or perceptual domains. Objective results indicate that the perceptual domain system achieves the highest quality.

M. Pucher, M. Toman, D. Schabus, C. Valentini-Botinhao, J. Yamagishi, B. Zillinger, and E Schmid. Influence of speaker familiarity on blind and visually impaired children's perception of synthetic voices in audio games. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

In this paper we evaluate how speaker familiarity influences the engagement times and performance of blind school children when playing audio games made with different synthetic voices. We developed synthetic voices of school children, their teachers and of speakers that were unfamiliar to them and used each of these voices to create variants of two audio games: a memory game and a labyrinth game. Results show that pupils had significantly longer engagement times and better performance when playing games that used synthetic voices built with their own voices. This result was observed even though the children reported not recognising the synthetic voice as their own after the experiment was over. These findings could be used to improve the design of audio games and lecture books for blind and visually impaired children.

Thomas Merritt, Junichi Yamagishi, Zhizheng Wu, Oliver Watts, and Simon King. Deep neural network context embeddings for model selection in rich-context HMM synthesis. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

This paper introduces a novel form of parametric synthesis that uses context embeddings produced by the bottleneck layer of a deep neural network to guide the selection of models in a rich-context HMM-based synthesiser. Rich-context synthesis – in which Gaussian distributions estimated from single linguistic contexts seen in the training data are used for synthesis, rather than more conventional decision tree-tied models – was originally proposed to address over-smoothing due to averaging across contexts. Our previous investigations have confirmed experimentally that averaging across different contexts is indeed one of the largest factors contributing to the limited quality of statistical parametric speech synthesis. However, a possible weakness of the rich context approach as previously formulated is that a conventional tied model is still used to guide selection of Gaussians at synthesis time. Our proposed approach replaces this with context embeddings derived from a neural network.

Manuel Sam Ribeiro, Junichi Yamagishi, and Robert A. J. Clark. A perceptual investigation of wavelet-based decomposition of f0 for text-to-speech synthesis. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) has been recently proposed to model f0 in the context of speech synthesis. It was shown that systems using signal decomposition with the CWT tend to outperform systems that model the signal directly. The f0 signal is typically decomposed into various scales of differing frequency. In these experiments, we reconstruct f0 with selected frequencies and ask native listeners to judge the naturalness of synthesized utterances with respect to natural speech. Results indicate that HMM-generated f0 is comparable to the CWT low frequencies, suggesting it mostly generates utterances with neutral intonation. Middle frequencies achieve very high levels of naturalness, while very high frequencies are mostly noise.

Peter Bell and Steve Renals. Complementary tasks for context-dependent deep neural network acoustic models. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

We have previously found that context-dependent DNN models for automatic speech recognition can be improved with the use of monophone targets as a secondary task for the network. This paper asks whether the improvements derive from the regularising effect of having a much small number of monophone outputs - compared to the typical number of tied states - or from the use of targets that are not tied to an arbitrary state-clustering. We investigate the use of factorised targets for left and right context, and targets motivated by articulatory properties of the phonemes. We present results on a large-vocabulary lecture recognition task. Although the regularising effect of monophones seems to be important, all schemes give substantial improvements over the baseline single task system, even though the cardinality of the outputs is relatively high.

Peter Bell, Catherine Lai, Clare Llewellyn, Alexandra Birch, and Mark Sinclair. A system for automatic broadcast news summarisation, geolocation and translation. In Proc. Interspeech (demo session), Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

An increasing amount of news content is produced in audio-video form every day. To effectively analyse and monitoring this multilingual data stream, we require methods to extract and present audio content in accessible ways. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end system for processing and browsing audio news data. This fully automated system brings together our recent research on audio scene analysis, speech recognition, summarisation, named entity detection, geolocation, and machine translation. The graphical interface allows users to visualise the distribution of news content by entity names and story location. Browsing of news events is facilitated through extractive summaries and the ability to view transcripts in multiple languages.

Alessandra Cervone, Catherine Lai, Silvia Pareti, and Peter Bell. Towards automatic detection of reported speech in dialogue using prosodic cues. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

The phenomenon of reported speech - whereby we quote the words, thoughts and opinions of others, or recount past dialogue - is widespread in conversational speech. Detecting such quotations automatically has numerous applications: for example, in enhancing automatic transcription or spoken language understanding applications. However, the task is challenging, not least because lexical cues of quotations are frequently ambiguous or not present in spoken language. The aim of this paper is to identify potential prosodic cues of reported speech which could be used, along with the lexical ones, to automatically detect quotations and ascribe them to their rightful source, that is reconstructing their Attribution Relations. In order to do so we analyze SARC, a small corpus of telephone conversations that we have annotated with Attribution Relations. The results of the statistical analysis performed on the data show how variations in pitch, intensity, and timing features can be exploited as cues of quotations. Furthermore, we build a SVM classifier which integrates lexical and prosodic cues to automatically detect quotations in speech that performs significantly better than chance.

Mirjam Wester, Cassia Valentini-Botinhao, and Gustav Eje Henter. Are we using enough listeners? No! An empirically-supported critique of Interspeech 2014 TTS evaluations. In Proc. Interspeech, pages 3476-3480, Dresden, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Tallying the numbers of listeners that took part in subjective evaluations of synthetic speech at Interspeech 2014 showed that in more than 60% of papers conclusions are based on listening tests with less than 20 listeners. Our analysis of Blizzard 2013 data shows that for a MOS test measuring naturalness a stable level of significance is only reached when more than 30 listeners are used. In this paper, we set out a list of guidelines, i.e., a checklist for carrying out meaningful subjective evaluations. We further illustrate the importance of sentence coverage and number of listeners by presenting changes to rank order and number of significant pairs by re-analysing data from the Blizzard Challenge 2013.

Mirjam Wester, Matthew Aylett, Marcus Tomalin, and Rasmus Dall. Artificial personality and disfluency. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

The focus of this paper is artificial voices with different personalities. Previous studies have shown links between an individual's use of disfluencies in their speech and their perceived personality. Here, filled pauses (uh and um) and discourse markers (like, you know, I mean) have been included in synthetic speech as a way of creating an artificial voice with different personalities. We discuss the automatic insertion of filled pauses and discourse markers (i.e., fillers) into otherwise fluent texts. The automatic system is compared to a ground truth of human "acted" filler insertion. Perceived personality (as defined by the big five personality dimensions) of the synthetic speech is assessed by means of a standardised questionnaire. Synthesis without fillers is compared to synthesis with either spontaneous or synthetic fillers. Our findings explore how the inclusion of disfluencies influences the way in which subjects rate the perceived personality of an artificial voice.

Mirjam Wester, Zhizheng Wu, and Junichi Yamagishi. Human vs machine spoofing detection on wideband and narrowband data. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

How well do humans detect spoofing attacks directed at automatic speaker verification systems? This paper investigates the performance of humans at detecting spoofing attacks from speech synthesis and voice conversion systems. Two speaker verification tasks, in which the speakers were either humans or machines, were also conducted. The three tasks were carried out with two types of data: wideband (16kHz) and narrowband (8kHz) telephone line simulated data. Spoofing detection by humans was compared to automatic spoofing detection (ASD) algorithms. Listening tests were carefully constructed to en- sure the human and automatic tasks were as similar as possible taking into consideration listener’s constraints (e.g., fatigue and memory limitations). Results for human trials show the error rates on narrowband data double compared to on wide- band data. The second verification task, which included only artificial speech, showed equal overall acceptance rates for both 8kHz and 16kHz. In the spoofing detection task, there was a drop in performance on most of the artificial trials as well as on human trials. At 8kHz, 20% of human trials were incorrectly classified as artificial, compared to 12% at 16kHz. The ASD algorithms also showed a drop in performance on 8kHz data, but outperformed human listeners across the board.

Qiong Hu, Zhizheng Wu, Korin Richmond, Junichi Yamagishi, Yannis Stylianou, and Ranniery Maia. Fusion of multiple parameterisations for DNN-based sinusoidal speech synthesis with multi-task learning. In Proc. Interspeech, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

It has recently been shown that deep neural networks (DNN) can improve the quality of statistical parametric speech synthesis (SPSS) when using a source-filter vocoder. Our own previous work has furthermore shown that a dynamic sinusoidal model (DSM) is also highly suited to DNN-based SPSS, whereby sinusoids may either be used themselves as a “direct parameterisation” (DIR), or they may be encoded using an “intermediate spectral parameterisation” (INT). The approach in that work was effectively to replace a decision tree with a neural network. However, waveform parameterisation and synthesis steps that have been developed to suit HMMs may not fully exploit DNN capabilities. Here, in contrast, we investigate ways to combine INT and DIR at the levels of both DNN modelling and waveform generation. For DNN training, we propose to use multi-task learning to model cepstra (from INT) and log amplitudes (from DIR) as primary and secondary tasks. Our results show combining these improves modelling accuracy for both tasks. Next, during synthesis, instead of discarding parameters from the second task, a fusion method using harmonic amplitudes derived from both tasks is applied. Preference tests show the proposed method gives improved performance, and that this applies to synthesising both with and without global variance parameters.

Siva Reddy Gangireddy, Steve Renals, Yoshihiko Nankaku, and Akinobu Lee. Prosodically-enahanced recurrent neural network language models. In Proc. Interspeech, page 2390—2394, Dresden, Germany, September 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Recurrent neural network language models have been shown to consistently reduce the word error rates (WERs) of large vocabulary speech recognition tasks. In this work we propose to enhance the RNNLMs with prosodic features computed using the context of the current word. Since it is plausible to compute the prosody features at the word and syllable level we have trained the models on prosody features computed at both these levels. To investigate the effectiveness of proposed models we report perplexity and WER for two speech recognition tasks, Switchboard and TED. We observed substantial improvements in perplexity and small improvements in WER.

Mirjam Wester, M. Luisa Garcia Lecumberri, and Martin Cooke. /u/-fronting in English speakers' L1 but not in their L2. In Proc. ICPhS, Glasgow, August 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

This paper presents an acoustic analysis of the three corner vowels in the Diapix Foreign Language corpus (DIAPIX-FL) which contains material from English and Spanish native speakers from both their L1 and L2. We investigated how L1 vowel characteristics influence the production of L2 vowels, and to what extent a current sound change in one of the languages is reflected in the other. We find that /u/-fronting in English occurs for both native and non-native speakers, although the degree of /u/-fronting is much larger for the English group. English speakers appear to create a separate category for the L2 /u/ rather than use their L1 sound. Spanish speakers show some adjustment to their English /u/ and /a/ realisations. These findings suggest that despite limited exposure to the L2 sounds, learners are aware of realisational differences between the languages and implement them to different degrees even for non-standard variants.

Marcus Tomalin, Mirjam Wester, Rasmus Dall, Bill Byrne, and Simon King. A lattice-based approach to automatic filled pause insertion. In Proc. DiSS 2015, Edinburgh, August 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

This paper describes a novel method for automatically inserting filled pauses (e.g., UM) into fluent texts. Although filled pauses are known to serve a wide range of psychological and structural functions in conversational speech, they have not traditionally been modelled overtly by state-of-the-art speech synthesis systems. However, several recent systems have started to model disfluencies specifically, and so there is an increasing need to create disfluent speech synthesis input by automatically inserting filled pauses into otherwise fluent text. The approach presented here interpolates Ngrams and Full-Output Recurrent Neural Network Language Models (f-RNNLMs) in a lattice-rescoring framework. It is shown that the interpolated system outperforms separate Ngram and f-RNNLM systems, where performance is analysed using the Precision, Recall, and F-score metrics.

Mirjam Wester, Martin Corley, and Rasmus Dall. The temporal delay hypothesis: Natural, vocoded and synthetic speech. In Proc. DiSS 2015, Edinburgh, August 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Including disfluencies in synthetic speech is being explored as a way of making synthetic speech sound more natural and conversational. How to measure whether the resulting speech is actually more natural, however, is not straightforward. Conventional approaches to synthetic speech evaluation fall short as a listener is either primed to prefer stimuli with filled pauses or, when they aren't primed they prefer more fluent speech. Psycholinguistic reaction time experiments may circumvent this issue. In this paper, we revisit one such reaction time experiment. For natural speech, delays in word onset were found to facilitate word recognition regardless of the type of delay; be they a filled pause (um), silence or a tone. We expand these experiments by examining the effect of using vocoded and synthetic speech. Our results partially replicate previous findings. For natural and vocoded speech, if the delay is a silent pause, significant increases in the speed of word recognition are found. If the delay comprises a filled pause there is a significant increase in reaction time for vocoded speech but not for natural speech. For synthetic speech, no clear effects of delay on word recognition are found. We hypothesise this is because it takes longer (requires more cognitive resources) to process synthetic speech than natural or vocoded speech.

Rasmus Dall, Mirjam Wester, and Martin Corley. Disfluencies in change detection in natural, vocoded and synthetic speech. In Proc. DiSS 2015, Edinburgh, August 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

In this paper, we investigate the effect of filled pauses, a discourse marker and silent pauses in a change detection experiment in natural, vocoded and synthetic speech. In natural speech change detection has been found to increase in the presence of filled pauses, we extend this work by replicating earlier findings and explore the effect of a discourse marker, like, and silent pauses. Furthermore we report how the use of "unnatural" speech, namely synthetic and vocoded, affects change detection rates. It was found that the filled pauses, the discourse marker and silent pauses all increase change detection rates in natural speech, however in neither synthetic nor vocoded speech did this effect appear. Rather, change detection rates decreased in both types of "unnatural" speech compared to natural speech. The natural results suggests that while each type of pause increase detection rates, the type of pause may have a further effect. The "unnatural" results suggest that it is not the full pipeline of synthetic speech that causes the degradation, but rather that something in the pre-processing, i.e. vocoding, of the speech database limits the resulting synthesis.

Alexander Hewer, Ingmar Steiner, Timo Bolkart, Stefanie Wuhrer, and Korin Richmond. A statistical shape space model of the palate surface trained on 3D MRI scans of the vocal tract. In The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015, editor, Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, United Kingdom, August 2015. retrieved from [ bib | .pdf ]

We describe a minimally-supervised method for computing a statistical shape space model of the palate surface. The model is created from a corpus of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans collected from 12 speakers. We extract a 3D mesh of the palate from each speaker, then train the model using principal component analysis (PCA). The palate model is then tested using 3D MRI from another corpus and evaluated using a high-resolution optical scan. We find that the error is low even when only a handful of measured coordinates are available. In both cases, our approach yields promising results. It can be applied to extract the palate shape from MRI data, and could be useful to other analysis modalities, such as electromagnetic articulography (EMA) and ultrasound tongue imaging (UTI).

Keywords: vocal tract MRI, principal component analysis, palate model

Z. Wu, C. Valentini-Botinhao, O. Watts, and S. King. Deep neural networks employing multi-task learning and stacked bottleneck features for speech synthesis. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 4460-4464, Brisbane, Australia, April 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) use a cascade of hidden representations to enable the learning of complex mappings from input to output features. They are able to learn the complex mapping from textbased linguistic features to speech acoustic features, and so perform text-to-speech synthesis. Recent results suggest that DNNs can produce more natural synthetic speech than conventional HMM-based statistical parametric systems. In this paper, we show that the hidden representation used within a DNN can be improved through the use of Multi-Task Learning, and that stacking multiple frames of hidden layer activations (stacked bottleneck features) also leads to improvements. Experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and in listening tests we find that stacked bottleneck features in particular offer a significant improvement over both a baseline DNN and a benchmark HMM system.

B. Uria, I. Murray, S. Renals, C. Valentini-Botinhao, and J. Bridle. Modelling acoustic feature dependencies with artificial neural networks: Trajectory-RNADE. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 4465-4469, Brisbane, Australia, April 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Given a transcription, sampling from a good model of acoustic feature trajectories should result in plausible realizations of an utterance. However, samples from current probabilistic speech synthesis systems result in low quality synthetic speech. Henter et al. have demonstrated the need to capture the dependencies between acoustic features conditioned on the phonetic labels in order to obtain high quality synthetic speech. These dependencies are often ignored in neural network based acoustic models. We tackle this deficiency by introducing a probabilistic neural network model of acoustic trajectories, trajectory RNADE, able to capture these dependencies.

Thomas Merritt, Javier Latorre, and Simon King. Attributing modelling errors in HMM synthesis by stepping gradually from natural to modelled speech. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pages 4220-4224, Brisbane, April 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Even the best statistical parametric speech synthesis systems do not achieve the naturalness of good unit selection. We investigated possible causes of this. By constructing speech signals that lie inbetween natural speech and the output from a complete HMM synthesis system, we investigated various effects of modelling. We manipulated the temporal smoothness and the variance of the spectral parameters to create stimuli, then presented these to listeners alongside natural and vocoded speech, as well as output from a full HMM-based text-to-speech system and from an idealised `pseudo-HMM'. All speech signals, except the natural waveform, were created using vocoders employing one of two popular spectral parameterisations: Mel-Cepstra or Mel-Line Spectral Pairs. Listeners made `same or different' pairwise judgements, from which we generated a perceptual map using Multidimensional Scaling. We draw conclusions about which aspects of HMM synthesis are limiting the naturalness of the synthetic speech.

Manuel Sam Ribeiro and Robert A. J. Clark. A multi-level representation of f0 using the continuous wavelet transform and the discrete cosine transform. In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP, Brisbane, Australia, April 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

We propose a representation of f0 using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The CWT decomposes the signal into various scales of selected frequencies, while the DCT compactly represents complex contours as a weighted sum of cosine functions. The proposed approach has the advantage of combining signal decomposition and higher-level representations, thus modeling low-frequencies at higher levels and high-frequencies at lower-levels. Objective results indicate that this representation improves f0 prediction over traditional short-term approaches. Subjective results show that improvements are seen over the typical MSD-HMM and are comparable to the recently proposed CWT-HMM, while using less parameters. These results are discussed and future lines of research are proposed.

P. Bell and S. Renals. Regularization of context-dependent deep neural networks with context-independent multi-task training. In Proc. ICASSP, Brisbane, Australia, April 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

The use of context-dependent targets has become standard in hybrid DNN systems for automatic speech recognition. However, we argue that despite the use of state-tying, optimising to context-dependent targets can lead to over-fitting, and that discriminating between arbitrary tied context-dependent targets may not be optimal. We propose a multitask learning method where the network jointly predicts context-dependent and monophone targets. We evaluate the method on a large-vocabulary lecture recognition task and show that it yields relative improvements of 3-10% over baseline systems.

Qiong Hu, Yannis Stylianou, Ranniery Maia, Korin Richmond, and Junichi Yamagishi. Methods for applying dynamic sinusoidal models to statistical parametric speech synthesis. In Proc. ICASSP, Brisbane, Austrilia, April 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Sinusoidal vocoders can generate high quality speech, but they have not been extensively applied to statistical parametric speech synthesis. This paper presents two ways for using dynamic sinusoidal models for statistical speech synthesis, enabling the sinusoid parameters to be modelled in HMMbased synthesis. In the first method, features extracted from a fixed- and low-dimensional, perception-based dynamic sinusoidal model (PDM) are statistically modelled directly. In the second method, we convert both static amplitude and dynamic slope from all the harmonics of a signal, which we term the Harmonic Dynamic Model (HDM), to intermediate parameters (regularised cepstral coefficients) for modelling. During synthesis, HDM is then used to reconstruct speech. We have compared the voice quality of these two methods to the STRAIGHT cepstrum-based vocoder with mixed excitation in formal listening tests. Our results show that HDM with intermediate parameters can generate comparable quality as STRAIGHT, while PDM direct modelling seems promising in terms of producing good speech quality without resorting to intermediate parameters such as cepstra.

P. Swietojanski and S. Renals. Differentiable pooling for unsupervised speaker adaptation. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

This paper proposes a differentiable pooling mechanism to perform model-based neural network speaker adaptation. The proposed technique learns a speaker-dependent combination of activations within pools of hidden units, was shown to work well unsupervised, and does not require speaker-adaptive training. We have conducted a set of experiments on the TED talks data, as used in the IWSLT evaluations. Our results indicate that the approach can reduce word error rates (WERs) on standard IWSLT test sets by about 5–11% relative compared to speaker-independent systems and was found complementary to the recently proposed learning hidden units contribution (LHUC) approach, reducing WER by 6–13% relative. Both methods were also found to work well when adapting with small amounts of unsupervised data – 10 seconds is able to decrease the WER by 5% relative compared to the baseline speaker independent system

Ling-Hui Chen, T. Raitio, C. Valentini-Botinhao, Z. Ling, and J. Yamagishi. A deep generative architecture for postfiltering in statistical parametric speech synthesis. Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE/ACM Transactions on, 23(11):2003-2014, 2015. [ bib | DOI ]

The generated speech of hidden Markov model (HMM)-based statistical parametric speech synthesis still sounds muffled. One cause of this degradation in speech quality may be the loss of fine spectral structures. In this paper, we propose to use a deep generative architecture, a deep neural network (DNN) generatively trained, as a postfilter. The network models the conditional probability of the spectrum of natural speech given that of synthetic speech to compensate for such gap between synthetic and natural speech. The proposed probabilistic postfilter is generatively trained by cascading two restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) or deep belief networks (DBNs) with one bidirectional associative memory (BAM). We devised two types of DNN postfilters: one operating in the mel-cepstral domain and the other in the higher dimensional spectral domain. We compare these two new data-driven postfilters with other types of postfilters that are currently used in speech synthesis: a fixed mel-cepstral based postfilter, the global variance based parameter generation, and the modulation spectrum-based enhancement. Subjective evaluations using the synthetic voices of a male and female speaker confirmed that the proposed DNN-based postfilter in the spectral domain significantly improved the segmental quality of synthetic speech compared to that with conventional methods.

Keywords: HMM;deep generative architecture;modulation spectrum;postfilter;segmental quality;speech synthesis

H. Kamper, M. Elsner, A. Jansen, and S. J. Goldwater. Unsupervised neural network based feature extraction using weak top-down constraints. In Proc. ICASSP, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have become a standard component in supervised ASR, used in both data-driven feature extraction and acoustic modelling. Supervision is typically obtained from a forced alignment that provides phone class targets, requiring transcriptions and pronunciations. We propose a novel unsupervised DNN-based feature extractor that can be trained without these resources in zero-resource settings. Using unsupervised term discovery, we find pairs of isolated word examples of the same unknown type; these provide weak top-down supervision. For each pair, dynamic programming is used to align the feature frames of the two words. Matching frames are presented as input-output pairs to a deep autoencoder (AE) neural network. Using this AE as feature extractor in a word discrimination task, we achieve 64% relative improvement over a previous state-of-the-art system, 57% improvement relative to a bottom-up trained deep AE, and come to within 23% of a supervised system.

Herman Kamper, S. J. Goldwater, and Aren Jansen. Fully unsupervised small-vocabulary speech recognition using a segmental Bayesian model. In Proc. Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Current supervised speech technology relies heavily on transcribed speech and pronunciation dictionaries. In settings where unlabelled speech data alone is available, unsupervised methods are required to discover categorical linguistic structure directly from the audio. We present a novel Bayesian model which segments unlabelled input speech into word-like units, resulting in a complete unsupervised transcription of the speech in terms of discovered word types. In our approach, a potential word segment (of arbitrary length) is embedded in a fixed-dimensional space; the model (implemented as a Gibbs sampler) then builds a whole-word acoustic model in this space while jointly doing segmentation. We report word error rates in a connected digit recognition task by mapping the unsupervised output to ground truth transcriptions. Our model outperforms a previously developed HMM-based system, even when the model is not constrained to discover only the 11 word types present in the data.

Aleksandr Sizov, Elie Khoury, Tomi Kinnunen, Zhizheng Wu, and Sebastien Marcel. Joint speaker verification and antispoofing in the-vector space. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 10(4):821-832, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Zhizheng Wu and Simon King. Minimum trajectory error training for deep neural networks, combined with stacked bottleneck features. In Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Zhizheng Wu, Pawel Swietojanski, Christophe Veaux, Steve Renals, and Simon King. A study of speaker adaptation for DNN-based speech synthesis. In Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Zhizheng Wu, Tomi Kinnunen, Nicholas Evans, Junichi Yamagishi, Cemal Hanilci, Md Sahidullah, and Aleksandr Sizov. ASVspoof 2015: the first automatic speaker verification spoofing and countermeasures challenge. In Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Xiaohai Tian, Zhizheng Wu, Siu-Wa Lee, Quy Hy Nguyen, Minghui Dong, and Eng Siong Chng. System fusion for high-performance voice conversion. In Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Zhizheng Wu, Cassia Valentini-Botinhao, Oliver Watts, and Simon King. Deep neural network employing multi-task learning and stacked bottleneck features for speech synthesis. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Zhizheng Wu, Ali Khodabakhsh, Cenk Demiroglu, Junichi Yamagishi, Daisuke Saito, Tomoki Toda, and Simon King. SAS: A speaker verification spoofing database containing diverse attacks. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Xiaohai Tian, Zhizheng Wu, Siu-Wa Lee, Quy Hy Nguyen, Eng Siong Chng, and Minghui Dong. Sparse representation for frequency warping based voice conversion. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Liang Lu, Xingxing Zhang, KyungHyun Cho, and Steve Renals. A study of the recurrent neural network encoder-decoder for large vocabulary speech recognition. In Proc. Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Deep neural networks have advanced the state-of-the-art in automatic speech recognition, when combined with hidden Markov models (HMMs). Recently there has been interest in using systems based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to perform sequence modelling directly, without the requirement of an HMM superstructure. In this paper, we study the RNN encoder-decoder approach for large vocabulary end-to-end speech recognition, whereby an encoder transforms a sequence of acoustic vectors into a sequence of feature representations, from which a decoder recovers a sequence of words. We investigated this approach on the Switchboard corpus using a training set of around 300 hours of transcribed audio data. Without the use of an explicit language model or pronunciation lexicon, we achieved promising recognition accuracy, demonstrating that this approach warrants further investigation.

Liang Lu and Steve Renals. Feature-space speaker adaptation for probabilistic linear discriminant analysis acoustic models. In Proc. Interspeech, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) acoustic models extend Gaussian mixture models by factorizing the acoustic variability using state-dependent and observation-dependent variables. This enables the use of higher dimensional acoustic features, and the capture of intra-frame feature correlations. In this paper, we investigate the estimation of speaker adaptive feature-space (constrained) maximum likelihood linear regression transforms from PLDA-based acoustic models. This feature-space speaker transformation estimation approach is potentially very useful due to the ability of PLDA acoustic models to use different types of acoustic features, for example applying these transforms to deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models for cross adaptation. We evaluated the approach on the Switchboard corpus, and observe significant word error reduction by using both the mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and DNN bottleneck features.

Liang Lu and Steve Renals. Multi-frame factorisation for long-span acoustic modelling. In Proc. ICASSP, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

Acoustic models based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) typically use short span acoustic feature inputs. This does not capture long-term temporal information from speech owing to the conditional independence assumption of hidden Markov models. In this paper, we present an implicit approach that approximates the joint distribution of long span features by product of factorized models, in contrast to deep neural networks (DNNs) that model feature correlations directly. The approach is applicable to a broad range of acoustic models. We present experiments using GMM and probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) based models on Switchboard, observing consistent word error rate reductions.

Leimin Tian, Catherine Lai, and Johanna D. Moore. Recognizing emotions in dialogue with disfluences and non-verbal vocalisations. In Proceedings of the 4th Interdisciplinary Workshop on Laughter and Other Non-verbal Vocalisations in Speech, volume 14, page 15, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

We investigate the usefulness of DISfluencies and Non-verbal Vocalisations (DIS-NV) for recognizing human emotions in dialogues. The proposed fea- tures measure filled pauses, fillers, stutters, laughter, and breath in utterances. The predictiveness of DIS- NV features is compared with lexical features and state-of-the-art low-level acoustic features. Our experimental results show that using DIS-NV features alone is not as predictive as using lexical or acoustic features. However, adding them to lexical or acoustic feature set yields improvement compared to using lexical or acoustic features alone. This indi- cates that disfluencies and non-verbal vocalisations provide useful information overlooked by the other two types of features for emotion recognition

Leimin Tian, Johanna D. Moore, and Catherine Lai. Emotion Recognition in Spontaneous and Acted Dialogues. In Proceedings of ACII 2015, Xi'an, China, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

In this work, we compare emotion recognition on two types of speech: spontaneous and acted dialogues. Experiments were conducted on the AVEC 2012 database of spontaneous dialogues and the IEMOCAP database of acted dialogues. We studied the performance of two types of acoustic features for emotion recognition: knowledge-inspired disfluency and non-verbal vocalisation (DIS-NV) features, and statistical Low-Level Descriptor (LLD) based features. Both Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks (LSTM-RNN) were built using each feature set on each emotional database. Our work aims to identify aspects of the data that constrain the effectiveness of models and features. Our results show that the perfor mance of different types of features and models is influenced by the type of dialogue and the amount of training data. Because DIS-NVs are less frequent in acted dialogues than in spontaneous dialogues, the DIS-NV features perform better than the LLD features when recognizing emotions in spontaneous dialogues, but not in acted dialogues. The LSTM-RNN model gives better performance than the SVM model when there is enough training data, but the complex structure of a LSTM-RNN model may limit its performance when there is less training data available, and may also risk over-fitting. Additionally, we find that long distance contexts may be more useful when performing emotion recognition at the word level than at the utterance level.

Jaime Lorenzo-Trueba, Roberto Barra-Chicote, Rubén San-Segundo, Javier Ferreiros, Junichi Yamagishi, and Juan M. Montero. Emotion transplantation through adaptation in hmm-based speech synthesis. Computer Speech & Language, 34(1):292 - 307, 2015. [ bib | DOI | http ]

Abstract This paper proposes an emotion transplantation method capable of modifying a synthetic speech model through the use of {CSMAPLR} adaptation in order to incorporate emotional information learned from a different speaker model while maintaining the identity of the original speaker as much as possible. The proposed method relies on learning both emotional and speaker identity information by means of their adaptation function from an average voice model, and combining them into a single cascade transform capable of imbuing the desired emotion into the target speaker. This method is then applied to the task of transplanting four emotions (anger, happiness, sadness and surprise) into 3 male speakers and 3 female speakers and evaluated in a number of perceptual tests. The results of the evaluations show how the perceived naturalness for emotional text significantly favors the use of the proposed transplanted emotional speech synthesis when compared to traditional neutral speech synthesis, evidenced by a big increase in the perceived emotional strength of the synthesized utterances at a slight cost in speech quality. A final evaluation with a robotic laboratory assistant application shows how by using emotional speech we can significantly increase the students’ satisfaction with the dialog system, proving how the proposed emotion transplantation system provides benefits in real applications.

Keywords: Emotion transplantation

Alexander Hewer, Stefanie Wuhrer, Ingmar Steiner, and Korin Richmond. Tongue mesh extraction from 3D MRI data of the human vocal tract. In Michael Breuß, Alfred M. Bruckstein, Petros Maragos, and Stefanie Wuhrer, editors, Perspectives in Shape Analysis, Mathematics and Visualization. Springer, 2015. (in press). [ bib ]

Korin Richmond, Zhen-Hua Ling, and Junichi Yamagishi. The use of articulatory movement data in speech synthesis applications: An overview - application of articulatory movements using machine learning algorithms [invited review]. Acoustical Science and Technology, 36(6):467-477, 2015. [ bib | DOI ]

Korin Richmond, Junichi Yamagishi, and Zhen-Hua Ling. Applications of articulatory movements based on machine learning. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, 70(10):539-545, 2015. [ bib ]

Peter Bell and Steve Renals. A system for automatic alignment of broadcast media captions using weighted finite-state transducers. In Proc. ASRU, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

We describe our system for alignment of broadcast media captions in the 2015 MGB Challenge. A precise time alignment of previously-generated subtitles to media data is important in the process of caption generation by broadcasters. However, this task is challenging due to the highly diverse, often noisy content of the audio, and because the subtitles are frequently not a verbatim representation of the actual words spoken. Our system employs a two-pass approach with appropriately constrained weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) to enable good alignment even when the audio quality would be challenging for conventional ASR. The system achieves an f-score of 0.8965 on the MGB Challenge development set.

Ahmed Ali, Walid Magdy, Peter Bell, and Steve Renals. Multi-reference WER for evaluating ASR for languages with no orthographic rules. In Proc. ASRU, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

We describe our system for alignment of broadcast media captions in the 2015 MGB Challenge. A precise time alignment of previously-generated subtitles to media data is important in the process of caption generation by broadcasters. However, this task is challenging due to the highly diverse, often noisy content of the audio, and because the subtitles are frequently not a verbatim representation of the actual words spoken. Our system employs a two-pass approach with appropriately constrained weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) to enable good alignment even when the audio quality would be challenging for conventional ASR. The system achieves an f-score of 0.8965 on the MGB Challenge development set.

Peter Bell, Mark Gales, Thomas Hain, Jonathan Kilgour, Pierre Lanchantin, Xunying Liu, Andrew McParland, Steve Renals, Oscar Saz, Mirjam Wester, and Phil Woodland. The MGB challenge: Evaluating multi-genre broadcast media recognition. In Proc. ASRU, 2015. [ bib | .pdf ]

This paper describes the Multi-Genre Broadcast (MGB) Challenge at ASRU 2015, an evaluation focused on speech recognition, speaker diarization, and “lightly supervised” alignment of BBC TV recordings. The challenge training data covered the whole range of seven weeks BBC TV output across four channels, resulting in about 1,600 hours of broadcast audio. In addition several hundred million words of BBC subtitle text was provided for language modelling. A novel aspect of the evaluation was the exploration of speech recognition and speaker diarization in a longitudinal setting - i.e. recognition of several episodes of the same show, and speaker diarization across these episodes, linking speakers. The longitudinal tasks also offered the opportunity for systems to make use of supplied metadata including show title, genre tag, and date/time of transmission. This paper describes the task data and evaluation process used in the MGB challenge, and summarises the results obtained.