1995.bib

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@phdthesis{Forsyth_phd,
  author = {Forsyth, Mark E.},
  school = {University of Edinburgh},
  title = {Semi-continuous hidden {M}arkov models for speaker verification},
  categories = {verification},
  year = {1995}
}
@inproceedings{hochberg-arpa95,
  author = {Hochberg, M. and Cook, G. and Renals, S. and Robinson, T. and Schechtman, R.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/slt95.ps.gz},
  title = {The 1994 {Abbot} hybrid {connectionist--HMM} large vocabulary recognition system},
  booktitle = {Proc. ARPA Spoken Language Technology Workshop},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {170--175},
  categories = {wernicke,recognition,wsj,am,hybrid,abbot,eval,search,sheffield,cambridge}
}
@incollection{Carletta_1995_a,
  editor = {Andernach, J.A. and van de Burgt, S.P. and van der Hoeven, G.F.},
  author = {Carletta, Jean and Isard, Amy and Isard, Stephen and Kowtko, Jacqueline and Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth and Anderson, Anne H.},
  publisher = {Universiteit Twente, Enschede},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Ninth Twente Workshop on Language Technology: Corpus-based Approaches to Dialogue Modelling},
  title = {The Coding of Dialogue Structure in a Corpus},
  categories = {dialogue},
  year = {1995}
}
@inproceedings{isard:king:taylor:kowtko:snowbird95,
  author = {Isard, Stephen and King, Simon and Taylor, Paul A. and Kowtko, Jacqueline},
  title = {Prosodic Information in a Speech Recognition System intended for Dialogue},
  booktitle = {IEEE Workshop in speech recognition},
  address = {Snowbird, Utah},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {We report on an automatic speech recognition system intended for use in dialogue, whose original aspect is its use of prosodic information for two different purposes. The first is to improve the word level accuracy of the system. The second is to constrain the language model applied to a given utterance by taking into account the way that dialogue context and intonational tune interact to limit the possibilities for what an utterance might be.},
  categories = {}
}
@inproceedings{Black_1995_c,
  author = {Black, Alan W.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_c.ps},
  title = {Comparison of algorithms for predicting accent placement in {E}nglish speech synthesis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Acoustics Society of Japan},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_c.pdf},
  pages = {275-276},
  categories = {synthesis, intonation, chatr}
}
@inproceedings{Williams_1995_a,
  author = {Williams, Briony J.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Williams_1995_a.ps},
  title = {Text-to-speech synthesis for {W}elsh and {W}elsh {E}nglish},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech '95, Madrid},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Williams_1995_a.pdf},
  categories = {welsh, synthesis}
}
@inproceedings{Taylor_1995_a,
  author = {Taylor, Paul A.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Taylor_1995_a.ps},
  title = {Using Neural Networks to Locate Pitch Accents},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech '95, Madrid},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Taylor_1995_a.pdf},
  categories = {recognition, intonation, id4s}
}
@inproceedings{robinson-icassp95,
  author = {Robinson, T. and Fransen, J. and Pye, D. and Foote, J. and Renals, S.},
  title = {{WSJCAM0}: A {British English} speech corpus for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition},
  booktitle = {Proc IEEE ICASSP},
  address = {Detroit},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {81--84},
  categories = {}
}
@inproceedings{Nakai1995ICASSP,
  author = {Nakai, Mitsuru and Harald, Singer and Sagisaka, Yoshinori and Shimodaira, Hiroshi},
  title = {{Automatic Prosodic Segmentation by F0 Clustering Using Superpositional Modeling}},
  journal = {},
  month = {May},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Nakai1995ICASSP.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proc. ICASSP-95, PR08.6},
  pages = {624--627},
  categories = {F0, atr, jaist}
}
@inproceedings{Koba1995HCIb,
  author = {Koba, Hisao and hiroshi Shimodaira and Kimura, Masayuki},
  title = {{Intelligent Automatic Document Transcription System for Braille: To Improve Accessibility to Printed Matter for the Visually Impaired}},
  booktitle = {HIC International'95},
  year = {1995},
  month = {July}
}
@inproceedings{Taylor_1995_c,
  author = {Taylor, Paul A. and Isard, Amy},
  booktitle = {2nd Speak! Workshop: Speech Generation in Multimodal Information Systems and Practical Applications, Darmstadt},
  title = {{SSML}: A Speech Synthesis Markup Language},
  categories = {synthesis, markup, festival, sable},
  year = {1995}
}
@inproceedings{Wrench_1995_b,
  author = {Wrench, Alan A. and Jackson, M. S. and Soutar, D. S. and Robertson, A.G. and Beck, J. Mackenzie},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Wrench_1995_b.ps},
  title = {Evaluation of a System for Segmental Speech Quality Assessment: Voiceless Fricavties},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech '95, Madrid},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Wrench_1995_b.pdf},
  categories = {}
}
@inproceedings{Black_1995_a,
  author = {Black, Alan W. and Campbell, N.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_a.ps},
  title = {Predicting the Intonation of Discourse Segments from Examples in Dialogue Speech},
  booktitle = {E{SCA} workshop on spoken dialogue systems},
  address = {Denmark},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_a.pdf},
  pages = {197-200},
  categories = {synthesis, intonation, chatr}
}
@inproceedings{Black_1995_b,
  author = {Black, Alan W. and Campbell, N.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_b.ps},
  title = {Optimising Selection of Units from Speech Databases for Concatenative Synthesis},
  booktitle = {Eurospeech95},
  address = {Madrid, Spain},
  volume = {1},
  key = {Black \& Campbell},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_b.pdf},
  pages = {581-584},
  categories = {synthesis, waveform generation, unit selection, chatr}
}
@techreport{Williams_1995_b,
  author = {Williams, Briony},
  volume = {eopl-95-3},
  journal = {Edinburgh Occasional Papers in Linguistics},
  title = {The Segmentation and Labelling of Speech Databases},
  categories = {database, phonetics},
  year = {1995}
}
@inproceedings{Hitzeman_1995_a,
  author = {Hitzeman, Janet and Moens, Marc and Grover, Claire},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Hitzeman_1995_a.ps},
  title = {Algorithms for analysing the Temporal Structure of Discourse},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
  address = {Dublin, Ireland},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Hitzeman_1995_a.pdf},
  categories = {text analysis}
}
@mastersthesis{Isard_A_masters,
  author = {Isard, Amy C.},
  school = {University of Edinburgh},
  title = {S{SML}: a markup language for speech synthesis},
  categories = {synthesis, markup, sable},
  year = {1995}
}
@inproceedings{renals-icassp95,
  author = {Renals, S. and Hochberg, M.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/icassp95-search.ps.gz},
  title = {Efficient search using posterior phone probability estimates},
  booktitle = {Proc IEEE ICASSP},
  address = {Detroit},
  pages = {596--599},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {In this paper we present a novel, efficient search strategy for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR). The search algorithm, based on stack decoding, uses posterior phone probability estimates to substantially increase its efficiency with minimal effect on accuracy. In particular, the search space is dramatically reduced by phone deactivation pruning where phones with a small local posterior probability are deactivated. This approach is particularly well-suited to hybrid connectionist/hidden Markov model systems because posterior phone probabilities are directly computed by the acoustic model. On large vocabulary tasks, using a trigram language model, this increased the search speed by an order of magnitude, with 2\% or less relative search error. Results from a hybrid system are presented using the Wall Street Journal LVCSR database for a 20,000 word task using a backed-off trigram language model. For this task, our single-pass decoder took around 15 times realtime on an HP735 workstation. At the cost of 7\% relative search error, decoding time can be speeded up to approximately realtime.},
  categories = {wernicke,recognition,wsj,search,sheffield,cambridge}
}
@inproceedings{neto-eurospeech95,
  author = {Neto, J. and Almeida, L. and Hochberg, M. and Martins, C. and Nunes, L. and Renals, S. and Robinson, T.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/eurosp95.ps.gz},
  title = {Speaker adaptation for hybrid {HMM--ANN} continuous speech recogniton system},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech},
  address = {Madrid},
  pages = {2171--2174},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {It is well known that recognition performance degrades significantly when moving from a speaker- dependent to a speaker-independent system. Traditional hidden Markov model (HMM) systems have successfully applied speaker-adaptation approaches to reduce this degradation. In this paper we present and evaluate some techniques for speaker-adaptation of a hybrid HMM-artificial neural network (ANN) continuous speech recognition system. These techniques are applied to a well trained, speaker-independent, hybrid HMM-ANN system and the recognizer parameters are adapted to a new speaker through off-line procedures. The techniques are evaluated on the DARPA RM corpus using varying amounts of adaptation material and different ANN architectures. The results show that speaker-adaptation within the hybrid framework can substantially improve system performance.},
  categories = {wernicke,rm,recognition,am,hybrid,adaptation,sheffield,cambridge}
}
@inproceedings{Wrench_1995,
  author = {Wrench, Alan A.},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech '95, Madrid},
  title = {Analysis of Fricatives Using Multiple Centres of Gravity},
  categories = {},
  year = {1995}
}
@mastersthesis{sanders_masters,
  author = {Sanders, E.},
  school = {University of Edinburgh},
  title = {Using Probabilistic Methods to Detect Phrase Boundaries for Speech Synthesis},
  categories = {},
  year = {1995}
}
@incollection{ATR-Buch,
  editor = {Yoshinori Sagisaka, Nick Campbell, Norio Higuchi},
  author = {Hess, W. and Batliner, A. and Kießling, A. and Kompe, R. and Nöth, E. and Petzold, A. and Reyelt, M. and Strom, V.},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/hess_et_al.ps},
  booktitle = {Computing Prosody},
  address = {New York},
  year = {1995},
  title = {Prosodic Modules for Speech Recognition and Understanding in {VERBMOBIL}},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/hess_et_al.pdf},
  pages = {Part IV, Chapter 23, pp. 363 - 383}
}
@article{Taylor_1995_b,
  author = {Taylor, Paul A.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Taylor_1995_b.ps},
  title = {The Rise/Fall/Connection Model of Intonation},
  journal = {Speech Communication},
  volume = {15},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Taylor_1995_b.pdf},
  pages = {169-186},
  categories = {synthesis, intonation}
}
@inproceedings{Black_1995_d,
  author = {Black, Alan W.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_d.ps},
  title = {Predicting the Intonation of Discourse Segments from Examples in Dialogue Speech},
  booktitle = {A{TR} workshop on computational modeling of prosody for spontaneous speech processing},
  address = {ATR, Japan},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Black_1995_d.pdf},
  categories = {synthesis, intonation, chatr}
}
@inproceedings{Sanders_1995_b,
  author = {Sanders, Eric and Taylor, Paul A.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Sanders_1995_b.ps},
  title = {Using Statistical Models to Predict Phrase Boundaries for Speech Synthesis},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech '95, Madrid},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Sanders_1995_b.pdf},
  categories = {synthesis, phrasing}
}
@inproceedings{hochberg-icassp95,
  author = {Hochberg, M. and Renals, S. and Robinson, T. and Cook, G.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/icassp95-abbot.ps.gz},
  title = {Recent improvements to the {Abbot} large vocabulary {CSR} system},
  booktitle = {Proc IEEE ICASSP},
  address = {Detroit},
  pages = {69--72},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {ABBOT is the hybrid connectionist-hidden Markov model (HMM) large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (CSR) system developed at Cambridge University. This system uses a recurrent network to estimate the acoustic observation probabilities within an HMM framework. A major advantage of this approach is that good performance is achieved using context-independent acoustic models and requiring many fewer parameters than comparable HMM systems. This paper presents substantial performance improvements gained from new approaches to connectionist model combination and phone-duration modeling. Additional capability has also been achieved by extending the decoder to handle larger vocabulary tasks (20,000 words and greater) with a trigram language model. This paper describes the recent modifications to the system and experimental results are reported for various test and development sets from the November 1992, 1993, and 1994 ARPA evaluations of spoken language systems.},
  categories = {wernicke,recognition,wsj,am,hybrid,abbot,eval,search,sheffield,cambridge}
}
@article{Forsyth_1995,
  author = {Forsyth, Mark E.},
  title = {Discriminating observation probability ({DOP}) {HMM} for speaker verification},
  journal = {Speech Communication},
  volume = {17},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {117-129},
  categories = {verification}
}
@inproceedings{strom95,
  author = {Strom, V.},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/paper.eurospeech95.ps},
  title = {Detection of accents, phrase boundaries and sentence modality in {G}erman with prosodic features},
  booktitle = {Proc. European Conf. on Speech Communication and Technology},
  address = {Madrid},
  pages = {2039-2041},
  volume = {3},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/paper.eurospeech95.pdf},
  abstract = {In this paper detectors for accents, phrase boundaries, and sentence modality are described which derive prosodic features only from the speech signal and its fundamental frequency to support other modules of a speech understanding system in an early analysis stage, or in cases where no word hypotheses are available. A new method for interpolating and decomposing the fundamental frequency is suggested. The detectors' underlying Gaussian distribution classifiers were trained and tested with approximately 50 minutes of spontaneous speech, yielding recognition rates of 78 percent for accents, 81 percent for phrase boundaries, and 85 percent for sentence modality.}
}
@inproceedings{Koba1995HCIa,
  author = {and Hiroshi Shimodaira},
  title = {{HI Design Based on the Costs of Human Information-processing Model}},
  booktitle = {HIC international'95},
  month = {July},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {},
  categories = {HI, jaist}
}
@inproceedings{fitt_eurospeech95,
  author = {Fitt, Sue},
  ps = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Fitt_1995_a.ps},
  title = {The pronunciation of unfamiliar native and non-native town names},
  booktitle = {Proc. Eurospeech 1995},
  address = {Madrid, Spain},
  month = {September},
  year = {1995},
  pdf = {http://www.cstr.inf.ed.ac.uk/downloads/publications/1995/Fitt_1995_a.pdf},
  abstract = {This paper will discuss pronunciations of unfamiliar names, both British and foreign, by native speakers of English. Most studies which look at peoples' pronunciations of unfamiliar of pseudowords are based on English word-patterns, rather than a cross-language selection, while algorithms for determining the pronunciation of names from a variety of languages do not necessarily tell us how real people behave in such a situation. This paper shows that subjects may use different systems or sub-systems of rules to pronounce unknown names which they perceive to be non-native. If we wish to model human behaviour in novel word pronunciation, we need to take account the fact that, while native speakers are not experts in all foreign languages, neither are they linguistically naive.},
  categories = {pronunciation, onomastics, names, phonology, pseudowords, L2}
}